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Once tools are properly processed and sterilized they are stored until ready for the second, final cycle. Before each client is pierced all necessary tools are placed into the second autoclave, which is called a StatimClave. It is important to note that needles and any soft supplies such as gauze are single use. After you have made your jewelry selection, a cassette with everything needed for your piercing is assembled and then placed within the StatimClave.

Once the sterilization cycle is complete, you will witness the opening of your cassette. Along with the piercing supplies, your cassette contains an individually numbered sterilization monitor strip. This strip lets you and your piercer know that the items to be used have been properly sterilized. These vows are laid down by the Tirthankaras. Other virtues which are supposed to be followed by both monks as well as laypersons include forgiveness, humility, self-restraint and straightforwardness. These vows assists the seeker to escape from the karmic bondages thereby escaping the cycle of birth and death to attain liberation.

Virtue is a much debated [17] and an evolving concept in ancient scriptures of Hinduism. For example, Apastamba explained it thus: Virtues lead to punya Sanskrit: Sometimes, the word punya is used interchangeably with virtue. The virtues that constitute a dharmic life - that is a moral, ethical, virtuous life - evolve in vedas and upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added by ancient Hindu scholars, some replaced, others merged.

For example, Manusamhita initially listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic life: The shorter list of virtues became: The Bhagavad Gita - considered one of the epitomes of historic Hindu discussion of virtues and an allegorical debate on what is right and what is wrong - argues some virtues are not necessarily always absolute, but sometimes relational; for example, it explains a virtue such as Ahimsa must be re-examined when one is faced with war or violence from the aggressiveness, immaturity or ignorance of others. Buddhist practice as outlined in the Noble Eightfold Path can be regarded as a progressive list of virtues.

Buddhism's four brahmavihara "Divine States" can be more properly regarded as virtues in the European sense. There are also the Paramitas "perfections" , which are the culmination of having acquired certain virtues. Note the semantic parallel for English virtue , with an archaic meaning of "inner potency; divine power" as in "by virtue of" and a modern one of "moral excellence; goodness".

In early periods of Confucianism , moral manifestations of "virtue" include ren " humanity " , xiao " filial piety " , and li " proper behavior, performance of rituals ". The notion of ren - according to Simon Leys - means "humanity" and "goodness". Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of "virility", but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning.

The Daoist concept of De , compared to Confucianism, is more subtle, pertaining to the "virtue" or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao "the Way". One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one's social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one's birth.

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In the Analects , Confucius explains de as follows: In Hagakure , Yamamoto Tsunetomo encapsulates his views on 'virtue' in the four vows he makes daily: If one dedicates these four vows to the gods and Buddhas every morning, he will have the strength of two men and never slip backward. One must edge forward like the inchworm, bit by bit. The gods and Buddhas, too, first started with a vow. While ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato , Aristotle , and their descendants opined that justice cannot be defined and that it was a divine mystery, Valluvar positively suggested that a divine origin is not required to define the concept of justice.

In the words of V. Nedunchezhiyan , justice according to Valluvar "dwells in the minds of those who have knowledge of the standard of right and wrong; so too deceit dwells in the minds which breed fraud.

VIRTUE AND VICE

Men should seek the sovereign good that Descartes, following Zeno , identifies with virtue, as this produces a solid blessedness or pleasure. For Epicurus the sovereign good was pleasure, and Descartes says that in fact this is not in contradiction with Zeno's teaching, because virtue produces a spiritual pleasure, that is better than bodily pleasure. Regarding Aristotle 's opinion that happiness depends on the goods of fortune, Descartes does not deny that these goods contribute to happiness, but remarks that they are in great proportion outside one's own control, whereas one's mind is under one's complete control.

Immanuel Kant , in his Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime , expresses true virtue as different from what commonly is known about this moral trait. In Kant's view, to be goodhearted, benevolent and sympathetic is not regarded as true virtue. The only aspect that makes a human truly virtuous is to behave in accordance with moral principles. Kant presents an example for more clarification; suppose that you come across a needy person in the street; if your sympathy leads you to help that person, your response does not illustrate your virtue.

In this example, since you do not afford helping all needy ones, you have behaved unjustly, and it is out of the domain of principles and true virtue. Kant applies the approach of four temperaments to distinguish truly virtuous people. According to Kant, among all people with diverse temperaments, a person with melancholy frame of mind is the most virtuous whose thoughts, words and deeds are one of principles.

Friedrich Nietzsche 's view of virtue is based on the idea of an order of rank among people.

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For Nietzsche, the virtues of the strong are seen as vices by the weak and slavish, thus Nietzsche's virtue ethics is based on his distinction between master morality and slave morality. Nietzsche promotes the virtues of those he calls "higher men", people like Goethe and Beethoven. According to Nietzsche these higher types are solitary, pursue a "unifying project", revere themselves and are healthy and life-affirming.

The 'Higher type' also "instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities" WP in the form of an "organizing idea" for their life, which drives them to artistic and creative work and gives them psychological health and strength. Finally, a Higher type affirms life because he is willing to accept the eternal return of his life and affirm this forever and unconditionally.


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In the last section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche outlines his thoughts on the noble virtues and places solitude as one of the highest virtues:. And to keep control over your four virtues: These are the virtues [42] that Benjamin Franklin used to develop what he called 'moral perfection'.


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He had a checklist in a notebook to measure each day how he lived up to his virtues. They became known through Benjamin Franklin's autobiography. Marc Jackson in his book Emotion and Psyche puts forward a new development of the virtues. He identifies the virtues as what he calls the good emotions "The first group consisting of love , kindness , joy , faith , awe and pity is good" [43] These virtues differ from older accounts of the virtues because they are not character traits expressed by action, but emotions that are to be felt and developed by feeling not acting.

Ayn Rand held that her morality, the morality of reason , contained a single axiom: All values and virtues proceed from these. To live, man must hold three fundamental values that one develops and achieves in life: Reason, Purpose, and Self-Esteem. The first three represent the three primary virtues that correspond to the three fundamental values, whereas the final four are derived from the virtue of rationality. She claims that virtue is not an end in itself, that virtue is not its own reward nor sacrificial fodder for the reward of evil, that life is the reward of virtue and happiness is the goal and the reward of life.

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