Japan in the American Embrace New York: Structure and Subjectivity, ed. Medoruma Shun, a prominent Okinawan intellectual, was not widely known in Japan until when he won the prestigious Akutagawa Prize, though he had been receiving regional literary prizes since the early s.
Medoruma was born in Nakijin, a northern Okinawan town steeped in history. Record of a Shoal of Fish, , pineapple. Reminiscing on his grammar school days, Medoruma relates that in he was ordered by his teacher not to use the local dialect. Instead he was encouraged to replace a good part of his daily speech with standard equivalents. Medoruma speculates that the rapidly changing face of Okinawa, post-reversion, is the reason that dialect, suppressed in the prewar by state authorities keen on bringing Okinawa into the national fold, and in the Occupation period by local schoolteachers who advocated reversion and therefore similarly suppressed local dialect, re-emerged anachronistically in society.
Further, on the literary front, from the mids, young writers from Okinawa began to publish their fiction in several mainland literary journals i. After graduating with a degree in Japanese literature, Medoruma took a number of jobs, mostly as a high school teacher in various locales throughout the prefecture. Like his predecessors, Medoruma has worked full-time while pursuing his writing. Unlike most aspiring writers, however, for well over a decade, Medoruma has, to the best of his ability, consciously chosen to remove himself from local literary circles in a sincere effort to instill discipline into his life as a writer.
However, his subsequent public appearances relate strictly to his concern for local politics and the rights of Okinawans rather than literary matters. Indeed it is his disciplined nature that has kept Medoruma out of the limelight and from retracting his stated wish not to be categorized as a writer of Okinawan literature. In each work of this thematically linked trilogy Medoruma makes clear the long lasting effects of wartime trauma on the lives of his characters.
The aim of my analyses is twofold: First, I will show how in each story survivors of the Battle or their descendents physically bear the burden of war memory. Second, while these characters unburden themselves of repressed memories in the course of the works, there is no resolution to the trauma of war; it bleeds into the lives of the postwar generation. Ironically, Medoruma, who had long since removed himself from literary circles, found himself in the glare of national attention following his receipt of the Akutagawa Prize.
Moreover, the consecutive prizes Okinawa garnered in and led an ever-increasing number of scholars throughout Japan to reflect on the subject of Okinawan literature, a topic dealt with previously mainly by scholars in Okinawa. As the sole Japanese prefecture that experienced extensive and devastating land combat in World War II, Okinawa had long provided writers with gripping material for narratives of war. Though by their very nature the content of these stories makes them a solemn tribute to Okinawa, which suffered devastating losses in the Battle, the innovative and occasionally irreverent method Medoruma adopts to tell his tales of the walking wounded rightly place him at the cutting edge of fiction writing in Okinawa today.
In this unlikely story of a man who awakens to find his leg swollen to the size of a gourd and whose big toe emits water that phantom soldiers come nightly to imbibe, Medoruma injects large doses of grim humor. In his discussion of public memory and modern experience, Geoffrey Hartman writes that books are the main bearers of public memory while nonverbal arts such as painting and memorials serve as cultural reference points. These arts, neither unified nor bounded, influence personal identity. Certainly technology alone is not to blame for this desensitizing trend.
The passage of time also diminishes the reality of traumatic experiences such as war. How does one keep memories of the past in active recall when these memories are in constant jeopardy from both unnatural media reiterations e. In the reversion period, war discourse in Okinawa became systematized. In part this was to present to the mainland a unified face of loyal prewar subjects who are tragic victims of war. The subject of several film and narrative depictions, the Himeyuri have instilled in the minds of Okinawans and mainland Japanese alike the idea of Okinawans as victims.
As Linda Angst puts it, the symbol of the female student nurses has become the canonical narrative of postwar Okinawan identity. The Battle of Okinawa, Medoruma refuses to forget, has left the island with many individuals at pains to put on a cheery front, all the while dying inside. Telltale signs come earlier, in the first page: Another hint of an intermingling of past and present comes in the scene in which Dr.
Such masses, Kuroi explains, have long been absent in Japanese fiction. Abiding by the conventions of fables, then, Medoruma rewards good and punishes evil—or does he? The narrator imbues the highly charged scene with an unmistakable trace of homoerotic desire:. The lips pulled away. Lightly wiping his mouth with his index finger, Ishimine stood up. He was still seventeen. A smile took shape—around those eyes that stared out beneath the long lashes, on the spare cheeks, on the vermillion lips.
At last the thirst is gone. This critical passage raises several issues, none of which is easily solved, and which do not aid in reading the story as a generic tale of a village temporarily disturbed by immorality. This scene in particular, and the story as a whole, muddies the distinction between victim and aggressor.
Water figures prominently in the work as evidenced by its title and the contents therein, suggesting that Medoruma is probing folk beliefs of Okinawans, who according to Nakamatsu Yashu, revere and worship the spiritual power of water. Not only does Dr. Rather than depict a clash between public and private memory, Medoruma pits the indomitable weight of tradition against those mechanized forces that have come to erode long held communal values. A startling predator with fierce pincers, the crusty crab figurally rends the superficially smooth aspect of contemporary Okinawan society.
Spying the eggs of a sea turtle, Omito began to collect them for sustenance just minutes before she is killed by artillery fire. Uta was sitting in the open veranda, gazing at the brilliance of her dew-drenched garden, growing brighter in the morning sun, when the calisthenics music from the radio in the community center nearby began to play. She sneered humph and sipped her tea through a chunk of raw sugar in her mouth. For generations the elderly had started the day with a cup of tea before getting to work.
Naturally they urged Uta to join them. From this subtle aside on the rapid disappearance of morning tea under the onslaught of centralized culture, Medoruma segues to the heart of story, which underscores another absence—that of faith in contemporary times. Finally, a fellow villager is able to hack the elusive crab to pieces with a scoop and hoe just seconds after Uta realizes that the feisty crab must be a reincarnation of Omito, and that it, like the sea turtle, signals, through a reunion of mother and son in death, a restoration in the natural world.
Uta was the sole person on the beach. The light of sea fireflies faded in and out in the warm waves lapping the shore. Uta stopped, turned toward the horizon, and brought her hands together. But her prayer never reached its destination. Medoruma beguiles his readers with clever contrivances—a certified healer, a mythic sea turtle, a predatory hermit crab—yet neither Uta nor the sea creatures are ever securely attached to any convincing symbolic meaning.
Nor, in the end, are they any match for the war that engulfs them. To be sure, ingenious inventions such as drops of water trickling from the toe of an impossibly large, gourd-shaped leg, or a lusty crab staking its territory in a human body serve to entertain; they also force one out of conventional ways of thinking about war, memory, and identity. In both stories cultural memory, that suspect version of history, which the island projects to others in its assertion of group identity, clashes with a different kind of memory, one that is contestatory, idiosyncratic, political.
While Medoruma gives voice to the former in each case, these stories show clear tensions between and among local and national forces as they vie to narrate the past. As the annual festivities take place, Yoshiaki is slowly drawn toward traditions in which he had long been uninterested. These include music, dance, and the performance of melodramatic but beloved plays that depict rampant prewar discrimination toward Okinawans. This whitewashing of material included the removal of a gun from a proposed exhibit on the daily lives of civilian refugees during the Battle of Okinawa.
Further changes were made in terminology. In every case the former term is more benign than the latter. Understandably, many Okinawans were outraged by the fact that a peace museum in Okinawa was itself now part of a national attempt as in the school textbook controversy to conceal the facts of Japanese wartime violence toward Okinawans.
Without a doubt, Medoruma has emerged as the most prominent intellectual to voice his dismay at the conservative turn of the tide that has swept Okinawa in recent years. The steady stream of political essays published by Medoruma since effectively quells any doubt as to his preeminence in matters of public concern.
It was into this political cauldron that Medoruma stepped when he left quiet Miyako for once quiet Nago. Inamine employed a convincing argument to support his gubernatorial design choices for the new Peace Museum. That is, as Medoruma fills in what Inamine strategically leaves out of representations of the past, he too, is putting forth a different interpretation of the Battle. Lest one think that his is yet another portrayal of Okinawa-as-victim, Medoruma pointedly includes references to Korean sex slaves who are below Gozei in hierarchy, given that their sexual services are restricted to lower-ranking enlisted men.
One of the few civilian men left in the village, he worked as a servant at the inn. Their only relief from harsh servitude came in stolen moments savored under a yuana tree clustered with masses of yellow blossoms that look like butterflies from a distance.
Yoshiaki learns these particulars from a ninety-year old gentleman named Uchima who had previously served as ward chief. Well advanced in age, Uchima is, until Yoshiaki hears the tale, the sole repository of memories deliberately left unmentioned in village history. Inside, Gozei lies in the mud sexually degraded.
The guilt she suffers for this partiality remains with Gozei for decades. She spends her remaining years living in a hut no bigger than a goat shed, eking out a living by collecting and selling aluminum cans. Owing to her past, virtually all the adults suspected foul play and roundly censured her.
For months afterward, Gozei avoided the accusing eyes of the villagers. In the three-week span of the narrative, Yoshiaki comes to a finer understanding of himself through encounters with Gozei who awakens in him repressed memories and a desire to know more about his family and culture. No, he was very close. Bathed in moonlight, the clusters of yellow butterflies on the hibiscus tree seemed on the verge of taking flight.
When she went in the shade of the tree she was immediately drawn in by a strong force, and for an achingly short time, his hot tongue played at her throat, and his firm left hand pressed her back. I had already oozed into the dirt. The Korean woman was saying something. She pressed something in my mouth. It was a piece of brown sugar. My saliva overflowed and I felt the thin shred of life inside me grow. Sensations throughout my body abated, and even the sharp pain in my pelvis went away.
A shadow stood at the entrance to the cave, his back to the moonlight. You know all about what kind of a person I am. No matter how narrow or twisted the path, even if it led to a dead-end, I just kept going. Opening the front of my kimono, I listened for the voice that sent blood rushing through my body and warmed it so. In the second part of the quotation the narration shifts from wartime to the postwar when Gozei staunchly refuses to leave the village in which she is ostracized.
Wearing rubber sandals, my feet tainted white. The figure of a young boy crying at the roadside appears before me. For the first time ever I held a child who clung to me, crying. The feel of his thin arms around my neck. I never thought my own heart could hurt so much at hearing his cries in my ear. If only I could have had your child…. In the end, my body and soul become viscous and murky, and, like the river near the hibiscus tree, I mingle with all the ephemera in this world to become one with the ocean.
Trickling from my palm, seeping out my hair, coursing over my thighs, flowing from my eyes and ears, from my slack cells, one by one, matter dances in the air, like coral eggs. At last, a spirit emerges from my mouth as from a hollow tree, and, taking a butterfly shape, it flutters in the room, then escapes through the glass window, dancing toward the moonlit sky. It is precisely such perilous memories, which wash over fractured shards of identity, like tides over coral, that impel Medoruma to continue writing about a war he never experienced, but which he knows full well has not ended in the lives and consciousness of the Okinawan people.
Since his debut in , Medoruma has written persistently about Okinawa generally, and the Battle, in particular, despite having been born 15 years after the end of the Pacific War. By so doing, he forges a link between himself, spared from war, and the vast majority of his family and acquaintances who lived through it and then, more often than not, repressed their darkest war memories. Not only does Medoruma imaginatively draw the past into the present, he does so by using to comic effect the physical bodies of his characters.
Despite the wry humor of his works, these bodies are solemn and contemplative spaces through which Medoruma engages in a never-ending war. Davinder Bhowmik is associate professor of Asian Languages and Literature at the University of Washington and a specialist in modern Japanese and Okinawan literature. She is the author of Writing Okinawa: Narrative Acts of Identity and Resistance and is the coeditor of a forthcoming anthology of Japanese fiction, poetry, and drama from Okinawa.
Roberson, Songs of War and Peace: Music and Memory in Okinawa. Prelude to the Okinawan Anti-Base Movement. Douglas Lummis, The Innocence of Evil: Reflections on War and the Battle of Okinawa. Compulsory Mass Suicide in the Battle of Okinawa. Rainbow Bird , a novel length work, has not been translated to date. The reader is forced to read, thinking all the while. National Museum of Ethnology, , Lebra, Okinawan Religion , Literature and Resurgence in Okinawa, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, , Gerald Figal discusses the Peace Memorial Museum controversy in the context of his overview of the peace movement in Okinawa.
Columbia University Press, On September 4, , a twelve-year-old Okinawan schoolgirl was gang-raped by three American servicemen in a sugar-cane field on the outskirts of Kin village in Okinawa prefecture. The incident, horrific in itself, was compounded by the fact that it occurred during the closing days of a summer that marked the fiftieth-year ceremonies commemorating the end of World War II. In large cities throughout Japan, thousands protested to show their sympathy for the plight of Okinawans unduly burdened by military bases. Abroad, the rape of a young girl was likened to the rape of the island prefecture, not only by Americans but also by Japanese who first invaded the region in , annexed it in , and sacrificed the island in I should add that Medoruma also points his fingers at Okinawans who enjoy financial gain from land leased to the U.
In his essays Medoruma has often referred to the extreme violence Okinawans displayed toward Okinawans during wartime. While this type of cruelty is less known than the ill treatment of Okinawans by Japanese soldiers, it is not unrelated in that Okinawans lashing out at their fellow islanders may have done so to show their loyalty to the state. Recently, Medoruma has begun to write about the centrality of war in his family. See Medoruma Shun, Okinawa sengo zero-nen , Tokyo: A Theory of Minority Literature , Tokyo:.
Medoruma Shun and Memories of the Battle of Okinawa. Stewart, Frank and Yamazato, Katsunori, eds. Literature and Resurgence in Okinawa , Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Yonaguni opens a new front in the contest between the agenda that the governments of Japan and the United States are intent on imposing and local aspirations for an order of peace and cooperation that would finally supplant Cold War confrontation. The speech delivered on that occasion to the Town Assembly by Mr Tasato Chiyoki is attached below as a document.
To China, the Japanese decision to implant a military force within the first Chinese maritime line of defen se, and in the closest Japanese island territories to the contested Senkaku or Diaoyu islands, and to Taiwan, would inevitably be seen as a challenge. Few islands face choices of such moment. From the Chinese viewpoint the Okinawan island chain resembles nothing so much as a giant maritime Great Wall intervening between it and the Pacific Ocean. To China the outcome has the look of challenge and intimidation, but US defense planners insist they are responding to the threat posed by a Chinese build-up.
Undefended, they were peaceful and secure throughout the Cold War. Yonaguni the blue dot just to the southeast of Taipei is so tiny that it is not even named. It is by any measure a small island, with a perimeter of It has long suffered fiscal, demographic, social, and economic crises, complicated now by military and strategic pressure.
It goes without saying that Tokyo holds Yonaguni and the other Yaeyama islands to be unquestionable, integral Japanese territory. And yet its status has been much more ambiguous than such a term might suggest. Shiba Hiromoto, November These islands were long part of the Ryukyu kingdom, but, so marginal did they once seem to Tokyo that, though only incorporated in the modern state in , Japan offered them to China a year later as part of a deal: In other words, Meiji Japan saw them as peripheral and would gladly have sacrificed them for recognition as a major imperialist power claiming rights in China.
China, however, proposed instead a three-way division — North to Japan, South including Yonaguni to China, with a revived Ryukyu kingdom on the Okinawan main island. As the two sides haggled over how to split the islands to serve their respective interests, the occasion passed. Furthermore, during the heyday of the Japanese empire Yonaguni developed close economic and social ties with neighbouring Taiwan, even thriving in the late imperial days and in the early post-war era till the US took steps to close down the then thriving black market.
Throughout the rest of the Cold War and the standoff between mainland China and Taiwan, Yonaguni remained undisturbed, with just two policemen, a hand weapon apiece, to maintain law and order. Mayor Hokama Shukichi late in spoke of an annual grant that in the s was between three and four billion yen being reduced by ca. Yonaguni shares with the other Okinawan islands the social memory of the time predating the rise of the modern Japanese state when the Ryukyu kingdom flourished as an independent trading link between the communities of East and Southeast Asia, on the principle of open seas, demilitarized, with a vibrant culture and an open society.
Such memories have political and identity, as well as trade and investment, implications. Since the end of the Cold War, Okinawa has struggled to revive some of its past glory by seeking ways to engage more closely with its neighbours, across and beyond the conventional boundaries of the state. Cosmopolitan City Okinawa would be a post-base, demilitarized Okinawa.
Refusing to separate the two, however, Governor Ota failed to persuade Tokyo on either count. The national bureaucracy was reluctant to loosen the strings of bureaucratic control so as to make Okinawa sufficiently autonomous to be able to take the necessary initiatives. By contrast, for Ota and many — probably a substantial majority — of Okinawans, economic and social objectives called first and foremost for the bases to be reduced and eventually abolished.
It has made a series of significant choices since the 21 st century began. In October it chose, by referendum, not to merge with its Yaeyama Island neighbours, Ishigaki and Taketomi. Yonaguni might be far from the national capital, Tokyo, but the coast of Taiwan and of mainland China are relatively close, and even Hong Kong and Manila are closer and 1, kilometres respectively than much of Japan.
There had been recurrent attempts in Yonaguni and more broadly, Okinawa to compensate for peripherality within the Japanese nation state by engaging its neighbours, but, till the end of the Cold War the fact that a highly sensitive frontier ran through the Taiwan strait and in close proximity to Yonaguni and the Yaeyama Islands was not propitious to any such regional project. However, in Yonaguni opened a sister city relationship with the Taiwan city of Hualien and in it became the first city or town in Japan to open its own office in Taiwan at Hualien. For the 30 th anniversary of the Hualien link, in a group of 35 Taiwanese on water-ski motor boats surfed onto Yonaguni beaches, vividly demonstrating just how bridgeable was the gap between the two, given only a political will.
Despite the dramatic gesture of the sea-borne motor-bikes in , after thirteen years no regular air or sea link exists. Yonaguni, Site for a Base? In May , while the LDP government still held sway nationally, the newly-established Yonaguni Defense Association organized a petition in due course signed by people calling on the island authorities, the Town Assembly chogikai , to issue an official invitation to the Self Defense Forces SDF to establish a base on the island.
Months later in September , the Town Assembly adopted 4: He was re-elected in August , but did not campaign on the base issue other than to promise explanation and debate prior to any decision.
It is now clear that the national bureaucracy in was working frantically to tie in key alliance and military decisions prior to the anticipated collapse of the Liberal-Democratic Party government as duly happened at the end of August , and pressure on Hokama was stepped up before and after his re-election in that same month, August When the Democratic Party DPJ government took office under Hatoyama Yukio in September, in keeping with its agenda of re-negotiating its relationships with the US and focussing on the creation of a regional East Asian Community, it initially opposed any SDF deployment to the border islands.
Defense Minister Kitazawa Toshimi declared that such a step could be construed as unnecessarily provocative by neighbour countries. The bureaucratic forces that resisted, and eventually destroyed, the Hatoyama government in were determined also to impose their priorities on the crucial island frontier. The Hatoyama agenda of close and friendly relations with China and commitment to construction of an East Asian Community soon receded to the point of being virtually forgotten. Tensions in the East China Sea ratcheted up following the September collision between the Chinese fishing vessel and the Japanese coastguard ship in waters adjacent to the Senkaku Diaoyu Islands, helping to strengthen the case for not only occasional SDF visits but for permanent SDF stationing in the islands such as Yonaguni.
The general principle of such deployment was then spelled out in the National Defense Program Outlines adopted by cabinet in December In August the DPJ announced the decision to deploy SDF forces a coastal surveillance unit to Yonaguni and set aside a one billion yen budget appropriation for survey, selection, and acquisition of a site on Yonaguni. Initially, the numbers involved would be small, likely one hundred for Yonaguni and perhaps twice that number for Miyako and Ishigaki. Mayor Hokama believed that the island had no alternative.
As for Yonaguni, however, it began to have second thoughts. Residents began to wonder what economic benefit could be expected from an SDF presence and to fear that the military presence might raise suspicion and prompt counter-measures on the part of China. Under the Local Government Authority Law, if one third of the electorate join in seeking it, fresh elections must be held within 60 days.
Given the far greater numbers who already joined in seeking the plebiscite, that requirement could be soon met. The struggle over the project is likely to continue and intensify. It is hard to see evidence of the former at present. As for the latter, it will mean places like Yonaguni becoming more vulnerable and divided.
Anti-base poster, Yonaguni, November Photograph: Yonaguni Island may be tiny, with a population of just 1,, but it and its adjacent Yaeyama island group find themselves facing pressures for which history has no precedent and the rest of Japan little understanding. Instead regional defense plans on which both agree call for steady increase in military presence and confrontation with China throughout the frontier sea zone. Yonaguni town joins Ginowan City, Nago City, and Takae hamlet, and indeed all Okinawa, on the frontier of a struggle that grows in intensity and has implications for the whole of Japan and the surrounding region.
Speech delivered by Mr Tasato Chiyoki to the Yonaguni Town Assembly, 24 September , at the special session to debate the question of a Plebiscite on the issue of invitation to the Self-Defense Forces to establish a base on the island. The motion for a plebiscite on the question of whether to invite the Self Defense Forces to set up a base on Yonaguni Island was defeated 3: Through the 67 years of the post-war era, not one single inch of Yonaguni Island was ever given over to military base purposes.
Our forebears built on this island a distinctive culture and an island of peace, striving to live in harmony with the richness of Yonaguni nature, overcoming all sorts of difficulties. We must not forget our obligation to pass on to future generations the wisdom and the spirit of independence and self-government evolved in the course of this history.
At that time, Mayor Otsuji Yoshikane carefully explained to the people of Yonaguni the advantages and disadvantages of merger and non-merger. Providing the information on which each and every individual citizen could make a fair and impartial judgement, he then conducted a plebiscite that attracted nation-wide attention by extending the franchise to everyone above middle school age. Achieving thus a majority view among the Yonaguni people based on a consensus within the electorate, the town assembly adopted a declaration of commitment to autonomy and self-government, maintained its existing electoral boundaries unchanged, without merger and accordingly withdrew from the Yaeyama District Merger Council.
Based on the wishes of the residents of the island, in whom rests sovereign power, the problem of merger that had divided the island was resolved in a democratic and peaceful manner.
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Now, we must implement the lessons from that time, and the people of the island, one by one, must address sincerely the problem of Self Defense Force deployment. There is another aspect to what is on the surface a matter of the deployment of the Self-Defense Forces to Yonaguni. It is the US military. It all goes back to 24 June , when two US minesweepers from Sasebo naval base docked in Yonaguni. This was three years before the Japanese cabinet decided on 17 December on the New Defense Guidelines. In the event of a struggle breaking out in the Taiwan Straits, Senkaku islands, or the Yaeyama Islands, it could become operationally necessary for the US military to have use of the harbours of Ishigaki and Yonaguni islands which are so close to Taiwan.
An additional purpose was that of rest for crew members and friendly exchanges with local people. However, knowing the sensitivity of such a US naval visit to ports in these islands, naturally explicit reference to the real reason for the port visits was avoided at journalist briefings. It would be too late to wait for a crisis to break out and then trying to make last minute arrangements for port use.
It was during the George W. Bush administration and it was Assistant Secretary of State Negroponte who actually gave the go ahead for the US ships to enter the harbour. This too helps explain the Kevin Maher comments. We must strive for a consensus and a common understanding among islanders around a conclusion that seems inescapable. At present, the governments of Japan and the United States, ignoring and actually discriminating against Okinawans, are moving to impose by force the dangerous Osprey, even as early as this month.
They do so by force because of military necessity, irrespective of the livelihood of the people who live there. The deployment of Osprey to Futenma and of the SDF to Yonaguni is structurally very similar, and if once the Osprey is deployed at Futenma it is clear as day that it will soon be flying to Yonaguni. Base-hosting places tend not only to get caught up in war but incidents and accidents also occur in them and the victims are always local people — people such us, our families, children and grandchildren, relatives and friends.
Our forebears built this island as an island of peace in the spirit of independence and autonomy, whatever the difficulties they faced. We Dunanto Yonaguni people must not forget this. Pro-base people say the mayoral election of and the town assembly election of resulted in mostly victories by those in favour of bringing in the SDF, but is that really the case? The mayoral and town assembly elections concentrate on many issues involving links between people, agriculture and tourism promotion, welfare, and the SDF deployment was not treated as particularly important.
The island is in fact now split over SDF deployment and the Yonaguni people, in whom resides sovereign power, have exercised their right of petition under the Local Self-Government Law. Those entrusted by the people of Yonaguni with government should take this seriously. Since it is the duty of those who carry out political and administrative tasks in a democratic state to govern in accordance with the wishes of the majority of the electorate, it is highly desirable now that this ordinance be implemented in accordance with the draft before us.
Should it be rejected, it would be a blow against democracy, further enraging the Yonaguni people in whom sovereign power resides. That should be avoided. Therefore, I call for the unanimous passage of the resolution on the Plebiscite draft, based on the consensus of the people of Yonaguni, its sovereign rulers. Strongly demanding a democratic and peaceful solution to this SDF deployment problem, I support this motion.
Okinawa Confronts Japan and the United States.
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See also McCormack and Norimatsu, op. A Chinese woman said that when her children first started school, she initially had difficulty getting information about their schoolwork as she was not listed on the registration document. Separate family registries for his daughter and second wife, and separate registration as an [ sic ] foreign resident for himself. A Korean woman, herself born in Japan, reported their landlord at first did not believe she and her husband were really married. The three cases above exemplify the problems encountered by multinational families 2 in Japan. The genesis of these unusual situations can be traced to the legislative intertwining of family and nationality in Japan.
As I explain below, the present system, even with these recent changes to residency laws, is inadequate for alleviating such problems in a context of rapid change. The amendments promise to improve administrative procedures and remove impediments, like those stated above, and represent some of the most significant changes to the population management of foreign residents in over sixty years. This is welcome news. However, the changes apply to only part of what, in essence, is an elaborate system of registries that are complexly interconnected.
Although it will take some time to fully understand the effects of these recent modifications, my purpose here is to discuss these developments in the broader context of legal and administrative processes that identify, manage and define the population of Japan. I argue that the changes, whilst a positive step forward, fall short of what is necessary to adequately and appropriately address the diverse and multifaceted population of residents living in Japan today.
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Part 1 The Beginning of Children's Literature
Kazama needs more love too: Bet by BakemonoShoujo reviews Rin lost a bet against Bon and Kamiki and now has to crossdress, to their surprise he looked good in it. I focused on YukiRin. Rating changed to M. M - English - Humor - Chapters: Bonds of Symmetry by Whale Obsessive reviews Kid has to find a way to bond with Soul if he ever wants to be head shinigami.
Will he do whatever it takes? Contains steamy yaoi KidxSoul pairing. Faded Love by xBakaTenshix reviews Haruka and Rin were together in high school but somehow faded apart. What will happen when years later they are both back in Iwatobi? Alfred the Octopus by OutToGarden reviews Marine biologist Arthur Kirkland is sent on a dive to collect some coral samples, but is instead abducted by a playful, blue octopus named Alfred. Whisper, Louder, Bang by thoughtless dreamer reviews Eren was grateful to have a roof over his head. Three square meals a day and security were the reasons he, Mikasa and Armin joined the military in the first place.
Joining had been synonymous with survival. What Eren hated was the need to be discreet with Armin. Thing was, he couldn't go on like this much longer. Sanguine Affections, Bloodied Obsessions by Despaired Author reviews Dragging his axe across the floor, Armin looked forward with the glint of death and insanity in his eyes. They would pay for stealing what was his, he was sure of it. He would never forgive them. He would never forgive anyone who stole what rightfully belonged to him and him only.
No one, and he meant no one, is allowed to take away his Eren. I don't own anything about this fiction besides basic plot lining. The game and characters belong to Square Enix. So it's set after the game, Neku and the others have been around for a while. Neku isn't doing so hot, he keeps remembering, hearing his once partner. His depression gets really bad and then the unthinkable happens! Hook but instead of Killian stopping her, he enjoys the show and decides to take her away for a little… privacy. Killian is there to help her relax and work off some of the tension.
Sheets and Sunshine by Joy Booth reviews Post Finale, Hook bids Emma good night, because he wants to be a gentleman, but will she be a lady? Raindrop by eizryl reviews All Rin wanted was a cheesy, corny, romantic picnic with Haruka, but Mother Nature was a bitch Give me touch 'cause I've been missing it by ofprincessespiratesandheroes reviews Set after 3x Emma feels guilty about what she did to Regina but luckily her pirate is by her side, making her feel good again.
In more than one way. Asch always thought Luke wanted Tear until he noticed that jealousy.
Will they both get over these assumptions? Tales of the Abyss - Rated: Shag Carpeting by OutToGarden reviews America, being completely clueless about British slang, invites England over to his house to check out some new renovations and can't understand why his awesome new shag rug elicits a strange reaction. But they both know she does And she can't break his heart. The time has come for Dark Blues to strike. Separating Netto from all of his friends and throwing him into a world of isolation, Netto finds himself wondering why he even cares at all O O Mega Man - Rated: Arthur doesn't, so Alfred makes a promise he will most likely regret.
The warm affection that rushed through him whenever he saw Haru always been ignored. Until Haru had left for a week long visit to his parents, and the space he had filled by Rin's side was a cold, empty hole. And Haru had never been one to reflect over his emotions, not until Rin said what he said, and Haru wanted to kiss him senseless. Don't Tempt me, Omnivore by Sawadork reviews Hibari doesn't do emotion. Sawada Tsunayoshi wore her heart on her sleeve. That's why she was such an enigma to him.
Yet, he couldn't help but be drawn to her. I Just Want Love by Ligerlilly reviews Light's mom is consumed with jealousy and kills Light's father and herself in front of his eyes when he was seven. He closes him self to the world and will only ever be saved if L breaks through his mental barrier. AU Death Note - Rated: Love Me Once Again by Ichigo Jaegerjaquez reviews America's th birthday is fast approaching and England is feeling nostalgic and abandoned that even after years, America hasn't realized England's love for him.
Under The Bed by Lala to the power of 2 reviews Haru, it turns out, IS hiding something something dirty under his bed, after all. Just Another School Year, Right? When Feliciana meets a new student named Ludwig, will they become good friends? Or maybe more than that? This story contains some genderbends, don't like, don't read! Headfirst by ComatoseButterfly reviews Alcohol; it can't heal love wounds, look after an 8 year old magician or recover an attorney's badge. But it can make someone feel better, and that's all Phoenix Wright wants.
NaruMitsu - though it's subtle to begin with. Signature Scent by amusingmurff reviews Rin runs out of his body wash in the bath. So he uses the soap from the bottle next to where his normally sits. Dragon Ball Z - Rated: Holding Hands by Crankwave reviews Guren and Ceylan are seen holding hands and Toxsa jokes around with it. K - English - Romance - Chapters: The Curious Incident of a Merman and a Hero by animeblackangel reviews Alfred has never been interested into marine life, but when he helps his friend Kiku, that all changes when he's rescued by a certain sea creature.
I do not own hetalia Hetalia - Axis Powers - Rated: Want by Nymphiase reviews RinHaru fanfic. I honestly don't know where I was going with this one Rin and Haru fight over their essays which they wrote in elementary school which leads to a series of events. Cynical, overweight and bored in the dull twilight of his empire, Arthur finds distraction in the form of rekindling his relationship with Alfred on board the RMS Titanic during her doomed maiden voyage. For Titanic's one hundredth anniversary.
Glitter by BleedingStrawberries reviews "I'm sorry Johan! But I can't make it tonight! Something suddenly came up at work! I promise I'll make it up to you, I'm really sorry! Words were just words. No, not at all. Eren flexed his fingers. What will be revealed when Rin gives him a chance? Rin really loves nights like this - nights when Haru turns into some kind of animal. A promise to a girl. But he was greeted by a male instead of a female. Who appears to be flirting with him too much. Grammar mistakes and stuffs.
You're mine by blackchaosaria reviews Rin was his and his only. No one can take Rin Okumura from Yukio Okumura, and no one can be over friendly to him without passing Yukio's glare. They'll always be together till the end but Yukio still want to confirm if Rin also love him deeply like he does. Patrick's Day, Arthur would get drunk. But what happens when he's a confused drunk? Vongola Preschool by lollilolli reviews Timoteo, Iemitsu and Nana sends Tsuna to Vongola preschool in the hope that he'll become more confident.
Will Tsuna be able to deal with preschool, the most hated place on the face of the earth? Rated T just in case. Turnabout worry by Kagome Lagiama reviews Wright 's daughter Trucy is hit by a car, and in desperation and confusion he goes to Miles for help. Seeing Phoenix in the state he's in is painful, and he has to keep down feelings he thought he had surpressed, right now Trucy is more important I suck at descriptions XS Rated T because of reasons An Unspoken Agreement by freaky-hanyou reviews Hijikata and Chizuru are a secret couple. All of the Shinsengumi captains know this.
It's sort of an unspoken agreement not to talk about it. But when Souji espies Chizuru sporting an impressive hickey, he just can't quite keep his mouth shut. Hijikata fluff and WAFF abound! As captain and seeker for the Ravenclaw Quidditch team, it was normal for people to gaze at him. Apparently dubbed the fifth sexiest male in sixth year, Arthur should be used to it but this gaze was different.
He couldn't tell if it was malevolent or benevolent, just different. Split Personality by I. Ros reviews Arthur's tired of Alfred always taking charge of their love life under the assumption that it's the Hero's duty to make sure his lover is never left unsatisfied. But when the former empire decides to play a little dirty to get some power back, things don't go quite according to plan. Luckily, he's still satisfied by the end. Marry Me by Katseester reviews Haru is ten years old, and he is thirteen years old, and he is seventeen years old, and he is alive.
Return to the Sea by sillypandalover91 reviews A year has passed and Arthur and his new family are ready to return to the sea however with a new danger lurking in the water, Arthur decides that it's best to stay on land for the safety of his new son. Rin can't accept his defeat and vows to show Haruka just how sweet he can really be!
A Tall Drink of Water by Miss-Murdered reviews Rin wakes up with a hangover after the Samezuka swim team party and realises he's not alone and he's naked. Help Me Find Myself by omgimwritingfanfics reviews With all the bitter feelings of rivalry and anger out of the way, it seems like everything is coming back to normal. Yet, both Haru and Rin seem to be troubled by something else, and it's becoming all too obvious to their friends. Gou feels some clever scheming to get the two alone wouldn't hurt, but she has no idea of the trouble she's about to unleash.
M for later chapters uh Free! Keep the naga population from extinction. Accepting the challange, Kiku and his team begin to selectively breed nagas. Their job starts with two nagas called Arthur Kirkland and Alfred F. Join the team as they go through a case that has never been heard of before. Following you to the edge of the world by DaireySyns reviews Yuma does everything to be with Astral. Even following him to the edge of the world. But that doesn't go easy as it sounds.
Oblivious Love by Snarkastic reviews Arthur has loved his best friend Alfred for as long as he can remember. Too bad he's too oblivious to see how much Arthur likes him. Can Arthur make Alfred realize before prom? AU, human names used! Shark, Yuma, and Kaito spend the night together. The editors rushing about to collect the manuscripts for special editions and sending it to the printers.
Onodera has forgotten about the holiday but his Saga-kun has quite a few tricks up his sleeve Sekaiichi Hatsukoi - Rated: Anticipation by WtfSmut reviews With the end of High School so close by, Yukio and Rin have been neglecting each other for a long time in favor of getting their last minute work done. What happens when the two finally notice how sexually unsatisfied they are?
If only he could find a way to give it to him without wetting himself. USUK in that order. Definate Smut in second chapter. Lots of Love by ForeverBlackSun reviews He'd specially made them all chocolates, putting all his effort into it. He'd walk to school with his friends albeit earlier than usual and he'd give his boyfriend some Valentine's chocolate. And just maybe Kyouya had something for him too. Valentine's Revelations by A chance to fly reviews It's Kisa's first Valentine's Day since he met Yukina, and they've decided to go on a date after work. However, is seems like they aren't the only ones who have made plans Chocolate from You by ZeroTheBaby reviews Jealous Rin sees Haru giving chocolates to his teammates, he wants them too, but he walks away with Haru chasing after him.
Paper Present by clandestine7 reviews [HaruRin] Back before Rin left for Australia, he mentioned once what he wanted for his birthday. Haruka never forgot, and now, years later and after everything they've been through, he gives Rin that very thing. It's tedious and his only love is a guy who is way out of his league. The meddling of a certain Sun Arcobaleno was the only thing that jump started their relationship though. But what happens when he meets a rather interesting player online? Arthur wants to give Alfred, his American best-friend-turned-boyfriend, a special gift to celebrate their first anniversary slash Valentine's Day.
While the British school council president wonders whether the younger boy would like and accept his handmade gifts, Alfred also has his own surprise for Arthur too Second to None by shuusetsu reviews He didn't know how he fell in love with him. He waited almost four years of his life to finally get his way into his love's life.
But when he did, it wasn't the fluffy and sparkly love he had imagined. Because trying to heal a mourning heart was never easy. One shot Sekaiichi Hatsukoi - Rated: The List by aquakitty reviews After finding an old record of his previous Nothing could stop him from completing what he set out to do originally.
Not even a certain bushy-browed Brit with a cockblock complex. At least, not forever T - English - Humor - Chapters: So when two English outlaws, Zangetsu and Shirosaki accidentally get caught up in the mix, Ichigo gives them a taste of France that they'll never forget. A Life Shared by Nightfoot reviews The chances of them both getting out of this situation alive were abysmal, and Flynn was determined to make sure Yuri was the one who lived. Of course, Yuri was equally determined to make sure it was Flynn. Tales of Vesperia - Rated: Will Arthur take a chance or will he stay in the friend zone?
I'll give you a hint: When Yami runs into Yugi again, Yugi decides to help him. Wishing On Stars by Vannebelle reviews Eren had always stood up for Armin, and he knew that Armin was only nice to him because of what he had done for him. Yet a part of him always hoped it was for a different reason. That was what Eren snuck out every night to think about, until one night he turned his dream into a wish when shooting stars trailed across the sky.
However, he made a mistake his first year of teaching at the school. He had to pay the price. Alfred Hetalia - Axis Powers - Rated: Free-Unexpected Morning by umbrella-glass reviews What the hell is going on? His work is never finished. I'm still the same person. Th-the fact that I'm a girl doesn't change anything. My breath hitches in my throat as he reaches up and brushes the flat digit of his thumb across my full lower lip. A ton of AU's. To celebrate the perfect lovers. Despite Everything by Shivasan reviews Edgeworth is leaving for Europe again and Phoenix sees him off at the airport.
What would happen to her if she met a stoic man that could catch her attention? Would she let him enter her heart? Ten Years' Time by pyr0technic reviews Four times Miles Edgeworth denies having feelings for his rival, and one time he doesn't. Christmas Party by Mitzia reviews Isaka invites the Emerald Department to a company Christmas party and of course, they all attend. Even though they celebrate Christmas, things get a little too hot for winter. Yaoi Lemon Oneshot with all couples!
He then comes up with the best gift ever. He gives him control, power. But carrying out the plan can be quite difficult knowing the other man's nature. A Vision to Change a Story by charmed4lifekaren reviews What if when Buffy was beating Spike in dead things Cordelia saw it all in the form of a vision? It would seem that Arthur is paying quite a bit of attention to that delectable little ass. All he can think of is the one that got away. After Ichigo finds an amnesiac albino, Ogichi Shirosaki, he feels like it's a second chance to do something right. As they grow up, an accident causes him to be fearful of love, especially love from his friend.
But when he learns Ogichi's secret, will he have the courage to help him, regardless of his fear and the danger? Tricks for Treats by I. Ros reviews England wants to have the perfect costume for the Halloween party America somehow talked him into hosting,and he knows magic can make that happen.
But when the younger nation unexpectedly shows up early and gets caught up in the potion, both nations get more than they bargained for and much more than either could have hoped for. The Pirate And His Hero by Hollyberries and Vanilla beans reviews Alfred agrees to help Arthur clean his house, but gets a little more than he bargained for when he discovers and proceeds to make fun of some of Arthur's old pirate clothes. Edds consern for Kevin's odd behavors makes him worry she is alinated men from wanting to date her, when In reality she has already caught the attention of the one she wants.
Just kinda spammed out in a night. Ed, Edd n Eddy - Rated: Bentos and Brother by AnimeLover reviews Yukio left early this morning, so when it's lunchtime, Rin brings him a homemade bento. Making the Right Choice by wingsofseyfert12 reviews Kodaka is having conflicted feelings regarding Yukimura lately. Through his confusion he begins to see clarity in what he wants and he thinks he wants. Will this newfound realization lead to something wonderful or will it just destroy his relationship with Yukimura forever?
FYI Yukimura is a boy in this story. Survival of the Fittest by 2dragonkat reviews Natural Selection is the preservation of favored species in the struggle for life. Only the fittest will survive. And Darwin's theory does not just apply to species on Earth. Life as an Espeon by Lanny-Sama reviews Paul hears a strange sound in the night. Following it, he falls towards his death. But Mew grants him life once more, even though it's not the life he used to have. Contains slight gore and Character Death. Used to be a Oneshot. Biting by 2kitsune reviews Rin and Yukio get a little carried away after class one day and Rin leaves bite marks all over his younger brother, and the next day they get into a awkward situation when Bon points them out.
Thoughts to Preparation by Electrotrash14 reviews "Okay Italy, Germany - Complete. Saiyan King by Terca reviews Lion King version. Snow Storm by PhoenixFlame53 reviews It's pretty hard to walk home through a snow storm, and Apollo Justice has experienced this first-hand…Luckily, Klavier Gavin and his purple motorbike were able to help him that day.
I'm horrible at summaries, aren't I? He thought it was But one touch can change a lot of things. Kevedd smut Ed, Edd n Eddy - Rated: For We Remember by Yulliah reviews It's been three years, five weeks and three days. I know, because it will be Scorp's third birthday in a week.
- api.stomagazine.it: Kindle Store.
- Grizzly Bears: Fun Facts and Cool Pictures. (Animal Photo Books for Kids Book 7);
- The Success Zone?
- List of Exhibited Books?
- The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus?
- From Email To Snailmail 7.
James remembers, he was only six at the time, but he remembers what it was like before. Lily doesn't, she was only two. Three years, five weeks and three days. A lot of time has passed since I lost my husband. NOT a Death Fic! Draco Harry Potter - Rated: It's Called 'Special' by Myathewolfeh reviews A jealous France decides to find out what makes England and America's relationship so special and gets a pleasant surprise. Cold Winters Night by not-hamlets-ophelia reviews Cold. Cold and Judai did not mix. But add his fiance, Johan in and he's willing to deal with the cold northern country that his lover called home.
Spiritshipping Johan and Judai oneshot. Contains two men having sexual relations willingly. Let Me Impress You by GlassCase reviews Alfred really needs help in his literature class, but that isn't the only reason he meets with his TA on a regular basis. Too bad he can't impress him with his lousy papers. The Little Merman by sillypandalover91 reviews Up where they walk, up were they run, up where they stay all day in the sun wondering and free. England wishes he could be part of their world.
Upon saving America from drowning, this young merman will stop at nothing obtain his affection, even going as far as trading his voice for a pair of legs. AU and human names used. Interruptus by prospectkiss reviews "It's like walking in on your parents. Contains appearances by some DD-cast, no spoilers. Model by DarkPhoenix reviews Allen and Kanda have known each other for years, yet when Allen poses for him, true thoughts erupt. Do You Love Me? The Complete Truth by Mopshadow reviews The trial of Athena Cykes is finally over and the truth has been uncovered at last.
However, the walk to Eldoon's Noodles for celebration may prove too revealing for the victorious attorney Phoenix Wright. Spoilers for AA5 Phoenix Wright: Of Space Bros and German Prosecutors by risokura reviews When space dorks and ex-rock star prosecutors collide. Drowning by Nienyan reviews As Richard watched the one person he ever loved slip away, a bitter storm overwhelmed him. All that remains is gasping any air he can find, even when every breath tears at his ravaged lungs. Knowing How by calma-llama reviews Rin seeks advice from his sister after strange feelings for Haruka begin to arise.
But I'm too lazy, so I'm putting it here. I couldn't find the category for this fandom anyways. Cover Art By S3i. Blue Eyes by Catiekay reviews A boy named Arthur moves in a few houses down from Alfred, and not only is he blind, but he is also grumpy, solemn, and snobby.
However, once the two boys get to know each other, they become friends. Unfortunately for Alfred, friendship becomes something much more. Sarishinohara by GaleSynch reviews AU: To protect her friends, she wanted to be the clan head - being female however, it was simply impossible. Then he came to help. She expected things to get better; the last thing she ever expected was to fall in love with her other self. Human , Rikuo N. Free To Be You and Me by Kryzanna reviews Rin and Haru were old best friends, on rival swim teams and had incredibly nosy but well-meaning mutual friends.
They never thought anything would change between them; until an awkward pool encounter causes a confused Rin to revise this belief. Contains yaoi eventually lemons. Lucky Jersey by blackfireandredroses reviews Nat knows how to keep Kevin motivated during the big championship game. Good thing Double D isn't aware of the side affect of wearing his boyfriend's jersey. Strawberries for Yuma by Brave orange blossom reviews Yuma is hanging out with Haruto at the Tenjo household when Haruto asks what Yuma's favorite fruit is and if there is any particular reason why it is his favorite.
Set after the World Duel Carnival. Rated M for reasons. Leave a review if you liked it, one shot. It's Just Kissing Practice by obsessionary reviews Eren and Armin are having a practice kissing session. They tell themselves it's kissing practice, but what happens when they feel it's more than that? Smaller than a Oneshot. Jones hoped to never see his old travel buddy again, but fate just up and decided up and to smack him in the face that day. Poketalia Hetalia - Axis Powers - Rated: A Private Matter by Mopshadow reviews When Miles Edgeworth finds out - through some unlikely sources - that Phoenix is in the hospital, he is none too pleased with the ex-attorney.
Takes place during Apollo Justice. The Vampire Slayer - Rated: Until Haruka changed that in the most convincing way possible. In which Rin gets the first letter in the word 'Dolphin. Awkward and Innocent by Hikari-Chimedekina-Neko reviews Cross posted from my tumblr, one-shot, Rin stole Haru's first kiss when they were kids. It took a long time before they, awkwardly and innocently, had their REAL first kiss. Rinrin and fluff all around, with a tiny pinch of necessary angst in the middle.
Secrets and Murmurs by Alshoruzen reviews There are some truths Shinichi would really rather keep to himself. Fortunately, Kaito agrees with him. Unfortunately, Kaito isn't about to let anything interrupt his Shinichi time—or should that be fortunately? Road Trip From Hell by Funny Unicorn Called Koko reviews Alfred Jones never thought he would find himself traveling cross country with the most irritating people aka the Bad Touch Trio in the world and meeting other crazies to return one measly little stuffed bunny to his British best friend who is now residing in California The things he does for friendship So when Hibari is resorted to spend time at a party with the obnoxious students of Namimori High, he encounters a highly eccentric brunet.
Then again, there's a first for everything. Evening Liaisons by Azshalade reviews One evening Armin accidently stumbles upon Eren and Corporal Levi in a rather compromising situation. How will this turn out? Hopeful Romantic by Luna Darkside reviews Sometimes Kaito really, really hates Shinichi's ridiculously skewed sense of romance. Infirm by Homicidal Whispers reviews Eren makes a choice during a mission outside of the walls. The result is Armin getting injured. Filled with guilt, Eren decides to make it up to him. America, The Beautiful by CoutureOtaku reviews America, feels that he is fat and ugly after the constant teasing from the other countries, but England's insults hurt him the worst.
What America doesn't realize is that the person in his mind, who thinks he's unattractive actually loves him and thinks he's absolutely beautiful. Night Falls by Nienyan reviews Once their feelings were disclosed, no urge could remain suppressed. Tales of Graces - Rated: Things heat up between them quickly, but can they get their heads out of their behinds long enough to actually talk to each other?
Loaded Soul by Slivering reviews Ryoma learns that a relationship with Fuji is like a roller coaster ride that never ends. Violate Me by Hollowshirosaki reviews Hichigo Shirosaki was known as a player most of the time, but when he came to a new school and met Ichigo Kurosaki, it changed his mind completely. Ichigo Kurosaki, also, lusted after the other, and when they share a night of passion after going clubbing, well…Ichigo was sure he was always going to have a light to his darkness. Prepare to be Boarded by Lunar Iris reviews England topping?
Check Ravished, incoherent America? You decide that for yourself. Rated M for language and Yaoi. Warning for moments of England talking like a pirate. The fact that it took him years to do that, only drives him upset that it might be too late to confess now. He is still gonna say it, but Will they stay together forever or will they get seperated and hurt? My Possession, My Property, My Arthur by midknight4ever reviews Arthur needed to get away from that vile creature but how can he when the demon desired to own his body as well as his heart.
The Monster wont stop until Arthur realizes that he is Alfred's property. Arthur enjoy Hetalia - Axis Powers - Rated: Window Service by Wolfspiration reviews While staying at a luxury hotel for a few days, Jaden and friends enjoy their fun.